The Domino Theory in the Administration of Eisenhower
The domino theory was considered a cold War policy which recommended a communist government in a single nation would easily consequence in communist takeovers in nearby states, each one dropping like a perfectly aimed row of dominoes. In Southeast Asia, the U.S. government used the now discredited domino concept to justify its involvement in the Vietnam War in addition as its sustain for a non-communist dictator in South Vietnam. In reality, the American attempts to stop a communist victory in Vietnam had a lot less of an influence than had been assumed by proponents of the domino rule. With the exception of Cambodia and Laos, communism failed to spread throughout Southeast Asia.
By 1950, manufacturers of the U.S. foreign policy had firmly adopted the concept that the emotional rise of communism in Indochina would direct quickly rule to the collapse of various other nations in Southeast Asia. The National Security Council provided the concept in a 1952 report on Indochina, in addition as in April 1954, during the decisive fight between French forces and Viet Minh at Dien Bien Phu, President Dwight D. Eisenhower articulated it as the falling domino course of action.
In Eisenhower’s view, the loss of Vietnam to communist rule will consequence in very similar communist victories in nearby countries in Southeast Asia (including Laos, Thailand and Cambodia) and anywhere else (India, Japan, the Philippines, Indonesia, and perhaps Australia along with New Zealand). The possible effects of the loss [of Indochina], Eisenhower said, are simply unaccaptable to the free world.
After Eisenhower’s speech, the phrase domino rule started to be utilized as a shorthand phrase of the strategic value of South Vietnam to the United States, and the urgency to stop the spread of communism all by the globe.
After the Geneva Conference finished the French Viet Minh war in addition as divided Vietnam along the latitude called the 17th similar, the United States spearheaded the group of the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO), a loose alliance of nations dedicated to taking action against security threats in the vicinity.
John F. Kennedy, the successor of Eisenhower in the White House, would enhance the commitment of U.S. materials in sustain of the Ngo Dinh Diem regime in South Vietnam and of non-communist forces battling a civil war in Laos in 1961-62. In the autumn of 1963, after harsh domestic opposition to Diem arose, Kennedy backed away from assistance of Diem himself but publicly reaffirmed trust in the domino theory in addition as the benefits of containment of communism in Southeast Asia.
Three weeks after Diem was murdered in a military coup in earlier November 1963, Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas. His successor Lyndon B. Johnson continue using the domino rule to justify the escalation of the U.S. military presence in Vietnam from only 1000 soldiers to much more than 500,000 over the following 5 years.
The domino theory is today mostly discredited, having failed to take into consideration the character of the North Vietnamese in addition as Viet Cong wrestle in the Vietnam War.
By assuming Ho Chi Minh was a pawn of the communist giants China and Russia, American policymakers failed to find out that the aim of Ho in addition as his supporters was Vietnamese independence, not the spread of communism.
In the long run, although the American attempt to block a communist takeover failed, and North Vietnamese forces marched into Saigon in 1975, communism didn’t spread throughout the majority of Southeast Asia. With the exception of Cambodia and Laos, the nations of the vicinity remained out of the communist grip.